## Can we use SPSS for meta-analysis?

SPSS can be used to make a meta-analysis but is not the most appropriate software for this task. There are software created for this specific purpose.

**How is heterogeneity calculated in comprehensive meta-analysis?**

The classical measure of heterogeneity is Cochran’s Q, which is calculated as the weighted sum of squared differences between individual study effects and the pooled effect across studies, with the weights being those used in the pooling method.

### How do you do a meta-analysis field?

We have broken the process of meta-analysis into six steps: (1) do a literature search; (2) decide on some inclusion criteria and apply them; (3) calculate effect sizes for each study to be included; (4) do the basic meta-analysis; (5) consider doing some more advanced analysis such as publication bias analysis and …

**What is a meta-analysis model?**

In a random-effects meta-analysis model, the effect sizes in the studies that actually were performed are assumed to represent a random sample from a particular distribution of these effect sizes (hence the term random effects).

## What is an example of Meta-Analysis?

For example, a systematic review will focus specifically on the relationship between cervical cancer and long-term use of oral contraceptives, while a narrative review may be about cervical cancer. Meta-analyses are quantitative and more rigorous than both types of reviews.

**What is a good sample size for a meta-analysis?**

The ideal number of studies in meta-analyzes is in the range of 20 to 30 effect sizes, although it may contain many more.

### Do you want heterogeneity in meta-analysis?

Heterogeneity is not something to be afraid of, it just means that there is variability in your data. So, if one brings together different studies for analysing them or doing a meta-analysis, it is clear that there will be differences found.

**What is an example of meta-analysis?**

## How many articles are needed for a meta-analysis?

Two studies

Two studies is a sufficient number to perform a meta-analysis, provided that those two studies can be meaningfully pooled and provided their results are sufficiently ‘similar’.

**What data is needed for a meta-analysis?**

The two summary statistics commonly used for meta-analysis of continuous data are the mean difference (MD) and the standardized mean difference (SMD). Other options are available, such as the ratio of means (see Chapter 6, Section 6.5.