How is vertebral artery occlusion diagnosed?

How is vertebral artery occlusion diagnosed?

Symptoms reported with vertebrobasilar strokes include:

  1. Vertigo – common – and this may be the only symptom.
  2. Nausea and vomiting.
  3. Disturbance of consciousness.
  4. Headache.
  5. Visual disturbance (oculomotor signs such as nystagmus, diplopia and pupillary changes).
  6. Visual field defects.

What is a positive test for vertebral artery occlusion test?

Perform passive rotation of the neck to the same side and hold for approximately 30 seconds. Repeat test with head movement to the opposite side. Test is considered positive if there is dropping of the arms, loss of balance, or pronation of the hands; a positive result indicates decreased blood supply to the brain.

What happens if vertebral artery is occluded?

Occlusion of an intracranial vertebral artery can cause ischemia in the lateral medulla resulting in Wallenburg Syndrome (decreased pain/temperature of the ipsilateral face and contralateral body, Horner’s syndrome, limb ataxia, hoarse voice, dysphagia).

What are the symptoms of VBI?

Symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency

  • Loss of vision in part or all of both eyes.
  • Double vision.
  • Vertigo (spinning sensation)
  • Numbness or tingling.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Loss of coordination, dizziness or confusion.
  • Trouble swallowing.

What is vertebral artery insufficiency?

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is a condition characterized by poor blood flow to the posterior (back) portion of the brain, which is fed by two vertebral arteries that join to become the basilar artery. Blockage of these arteries occurs over time through a process called atherosclerosis, or the build-up of plaque.

What causes vertebral artery insufficiency?

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is caused by a narrowing or damage of the arteries. The most common cause is atherosclerosis , a build-up of plaque in blood vessels. Plaque is a fatty substance in the blood. Plaque buildup makes it hard for blood to flow through the blood vessels.

What are the 5ds and 3ns?

New or sudden onset of head/upper neck/face pain unfamiliar to the patient. “5 D’s And 3 N’s”: Diplopia, dizziness (vertigo, light-headedness, giddiness), drop attacks, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia of gait, nausea, numbness and nystagmus.

When should we do VBI test?

The VBI positional tests should be used if the symptoms are unclear and the clinician is exploring the possibility of VBI in differentiating the source of any dizziness, light headedness or unsteadiness. If the history indicates, test other neck or treatment positions as appropriate.

How common is vertebral artery occlusion?

The overall stroke rate associated with lone intracranial vertebral artery stenosis (31/68 cases) was 13.7% per annum, at a median follow‐up of 13.8 months.

How is vertebral artery insufficiency treated?

Treatment for vertebrobasilar insufficiency

  1. Medication and lifestyle changes. Patients who have vertebrobasilar insufficiency, a history of stroke, or TIA (“mini-stroke”) should quit smoking immediately, attempt to lower cholesterol levels through diet, and exercise regularly.
  2. Open surgical repair.
  3. Endovascular repair.

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