Instrumental broadening has to be subtracted* to obtain broadening from other sources. This is done by using a ‘standard’ sample with large grain size and low strain, wherein there is no crystallite size or strain broadening (sample is chosen such that the density of other defects is small).

What are reasons for line broadening in XRD?

Generally, any lattice imperfection will cause additional diffraction-line broadening. Therefore, dislocations, vacancies, interstitials, substitutions, and similar defects manifest themselves through the lattice strain.

### What is the relation between crystallite size and strain?

Effect of crystallite size on lattice strain and crystal structure has been studied using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall plot, respectively. The structural lattice parameters decrease with increasing crystallite size. However, lattice strain increases with increasing crystallite-size.

What is Williamson-Hall equation?

In the “Williamson-Hall” following equation is used: βCosθ= Kλ/D+C.e.Sinθ Where β is the full width of the Bragg peak at half maximum (FWHM), θ is peak angle, D is mean crystallite size, e is strain and K~1. by comparing this to the standard equation for a straight line (m = slope; c = intercept)

## How do you find the lattice strain?

The ratio difference between lattice constants obtained from fitting and original value to original value gives the strain in material. i.e. strain = (a0 – a)/a where a0 gives lattice constant obtained from fitting and a – is original lattice constant.

How the effect of instrumental broadening is eliminated?

X-Ray, Synchrotron Radiation, and Neutron Diffraction The high intensity, collimation, and narrow energy band of a monochromatic SR beam have virtually eliminated the instrumental broadening of powder reflections.

### What does crystallite size tell us?

Crystallite size is the smallest – most likely single crystal in powder form. The crystallite size commonly determined by XRD. Grain is either a single crystalline or polycrystalline material, and is present either in bulk or thin film form. Therefore, particle is under no circumstances smaller than crystallite size.

What determines crystallite size?

diffraction profile
The crystallite size can be calculated from the full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) measured on the corrected diffraction profile.

## What is meant by lattice strain?

Lattice strain is a measure of the distribution of lattice constants, such as lattice dislocations, which arise from crystal imperfections [4]. In order to minimize this strain, the rheo cast samples are subjected to T6 heat treatment.

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