What is vertebral dissection?
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a flap-like tear of the inner lining of the vertebral artery, which is located in the neck and supplies blood to the brain. After the tear, blood enters the arterial wall and forms a blood clot, thickening the artery wall and often impeding blood flow.
What is Craniocervical dissection?
Craniocervical artery dissection (CAD), a tearing of the intimal, medial or adventitial layers of the wall of the internal carotid or vertebral arteries, is a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young to middle aged individuals in the fourth and fifth decades [1, 2], perhaps accounting for up to 10-25 % of ischaemic …
What is traumatic dissection?
Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a complication of severe blunt head or neck trauma, the main cause being motor vehicle accidents.
What causes arterial dissection?
Arterial dissections happen when the inside wall of your artery tears. Blood gets in the tear and separates the layers of the artery wall. This dissection creates a weak spot that can lead to a life-threatening leak. An aortic dissection is when you get a tear in the wall of your aorta.
What is the most common cause of vertebral artery dissection?
Blunt trauma to the neck is the most common reported precipitating event. Patients with connective tissue disorders are also at increased risk. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is the most common connective tissue disorder that can cause vertebral artery dissection.
How is cervical artery dissection diagnosed?
Diagnosis. Cervical artery dissection is suspected clinically and confirmed by neuroimaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomographic angiography (CT), and conventional angiography.
What is carotid artery dissection symptoms?
Typical presenting symptoms are as follows: Headache, including neck and facial pain – This can be constant, instantaneous, gradual, throbbing, or sharp. Transient episodic blindness (amaurosis fugax) – This is caused by decreased blood flow to the retina.
Is a carotid artery dissection a brain injury?
Introduction: Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a relative infrequent complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since TCAD is associated with morbidity in a considerable percentage of patients, it is important to obtain clues for recognising TCAD in this category of patients.
What is a traumatic aortic rupture?
Traumatic aortic transection, also known as aortic rupture, is the near-complete tear through all the layers of the aorta due to trauma such as that sustained in a motor vehicle collision or a fall. This condition is most often lethal and requires immediate medical attention.
What is a dissection of the carotid artery?
Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain and is the most common cause of stroke in young adults. Dissection may occur after physical trauma to the neck, such as a blunt injury, strangulation, but may also happen spontaneously.
Should I talk to my doctor about my carotid dissection symptoms?
Tell your healthcare provider if your symptoms get worse, or you have new symptoms. A carotid dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the wall of a carotid artery. This causes bleeding into the artery wall. It can be due to injury. Or it may occur with no known cause.
What percentage of carotid artery dissections cause ptosis?
Horner syndrome is present in up to 58 percent of people with carotid dissection. A droopy eyelid: This is called ptosis, and occurs in about a quarter of people with carotid artery dissection on the same side as the dissection.
Is Eagle syndrome associated with internal carotid artery dissection?
Internal carotid artery dissection can also be associated with an elongated styloid process (known as Eagle syndrome when the elongated styloid process causes symptoms). Carotid artery dissection is thought to be more commonly caused by severe violent trauma to the head and/or neck.