What usually happens to a cell whose DNA has been damaged?
The DNA in just one of your cells gets damaged tens of thousands of times per day. Because DNA provides the blueprint for the proteins your cells need to function, this damage can cause serious issues—including cancer. Fortunately, your cells have ways of fixing most of these problems, most of the time.
What happens if your DNA is altered?
DNA is a dynamic and adaptable molecule. As such, the nucleotide sequences found within it are subject to change as the result of a phenomenon called mutation. Depending on how a particular mutation modifies an organism’s genetic makeup, it can prove harmless, helpful, or even hurtful.
How do you induce DNA damage to cells?
Ionizing Radiation and Oxidative Stress. In cells, following exposure to ionizing radiation, DNA lesions can be produced directly or indirectly. The direct effect induces a one-electron oxidation of DNA, the indirect effect generates ROS through water radiolysis that can subsequently damage DNA.
How do you assess DNA damage?
DNA damage can be measured as an indicator of genotoxicity using an antibody against phosphorylated H2AX. By combining specific antibody-based detection of DNA damage with a cytotoxicity indicator, both parameters can be measured simultaneously in the same cell.