What does heterogeneous mean in cancer?

What does heterogeneous mean in cancer?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.

What is clonal expansion in cancer?

Cancers evolve by a reiterative process of clonal expansion, genetic diversification and clonal selection within the adaptive landscapes of tissue ecosystems. The dynamics are complex, with highly variable patterns of genetic diversity and resulting clonal architecture.

What is Intratumor heterogeneity?

Intratumor heterogeneity (also known as intralesion heterogeneity) refers to distinct tumor cell populations (with different molecular and phenotypical profiles) within the same tumor specimen [1]. Cancer is typically defined as a genetic disease driven by oncogenic mutations.

Where do cancer stem cells come from?

An alternative theory for the origin of CSCs suggests that they arise from normal somatic cells which acquire stem-like characteristics and malignant behavior through genetic and/or heterotypic alterations. For example, cancer cells gain stem-like characteristics through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Can a heterogeneous mass be benign?

Soft tissue tumors are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions that develop from various nonepithelial, extraskeletal elements, including adipose tissue, smooth and skeletal muscle, tendon, cartilage, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, and lymphatic structures.

What is clonal and Subclonal?

Verification of clonal and subclonal mutations Therefore, mutations were considered subclonal (ie, low-allele frequency) when VAF was <12% and clonal (ie, high-allele frequency) when VAF was ≥12%.

What causes clonal expansion?

Clonal selection is the theory that specific antigen receptors exist on lymphocytes before they are presented with an antigen due to random mutations during initial maturation and proliferation. After antigen presentation, selected lymphocytes undergo clonal expansion because they have the needed antigen receptor.

What is intratumoral injection?

Intratumoral immunotherapy is a therapeutic strategy which aims to use the tumor as its own vaccine. Upon direct injections into the tumor, a high concentration of immunostimulatory products can be achieved in situ, while using small amounts of drugs.

What is intratumoral administration?

Intratumoral injections of oncolytic viruses, toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, or stimulator of INF gene agonists are currently in active clinical investigation with an aim to stimulate “pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)” for the priming of antitumor immunity by converting noninfiltrated “cold” tumors into immune …

What do stem cells do in adults?

Adult stem cells produce the different kinds of cells that maintain the body’s tissues and organs, and, importantly, they have the ability to divide and reproduce indefinitely. These cells typically produce the type of tissue in which they are found. Adult stem cells are sometimes also called somatic stem cells.

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