What is a Quadricuspid aortic valve?
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital cardiac defect characterized by the presence of four aortic valve leaflets of equal or varying sizes. Even rarer is its clinical presentation with aortic stenosis.
What is Quadricuspid pulmonary valve?
The quadricuspid pulmonary valve is a rare congenital anomaly that can appear as an isolated morphologic variation or in the presence of other cardiac anomalies. Approximately 200 cases of quadricuspid pulmonary valves have been reported to date.
How common is Quadricuspid aortic valve?
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital heart disease with an incidence of 0.00028-0.00033% in autopsy series, 0.0059-0.0065% for patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and 0.05-1% for those receiving aortic valve replacements for aortic regurgitation (AR)[3,4].
What does aortic regurgitation look like on Echo?
The echocardiographic findings in severe aortic regurgitation include: An AI color jet dimension > 60 percent of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) diameter (may not be true if the jet is eccentric) The pressure half-time of the regurgitant jet is < 250 msec.
How rare is Quadricuspid aortic valve?
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly with an incidence of 0.01–0.04%.  Balinton reported the first known case in 1862.  Since then, <200 cases have been reported so far. It is far less frequent as compared to bicuspid (1–2%) or unicuspid aortic valve anomaly.
Does aortic valve regurgitation get worse?
It becomes leaky allowing some blood flow back into the left ventricle instead of forward into the body. You may not have symptoms for many years. Chronic aortic valve regurgitation may get worse. It may require surgery.
How many people have a Quadricuspid aortic valve?
Quadricuspid aortic valves are very rare cardiac valvular anomalies with a prevalence of 0.013% to 0.043% of cardiac cases and a prevalence of 1 in 6000 patients that undertake aortic valve surgery.
How rare is a Quadricuspid aortic valve?
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly with an incidence of 0.01–0.04%.
How do you assess aortic regurgitation?
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is considered the noninvasive gold standard for quantifying aortic valve regurgitation. Severity can also be evaluated by estimating the regurgitant fraction by flow measurement in the ascending aorta using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).
Does an echocardiogram show leaky valves?
Cardiac catheterization. Echocardiogram (“echo”). The test, an ultrasound of the heart, is the most important test to identify a leaky heart valve.
Is aortic regurgitation hereditary?
These congenital heart defects put you at risk of developing aortic valve regurgitation at some time in your life. If you have a parent or sibling with a bicuspid valve, it increases the risk that you may have a bicuspid valve.
How long can you live with aortic regurgitation?
In developing countries, it progresses much more rapidly and may lead to symptoms in children less than 5 years of age. Around 80% of patients with mild symptoms live for at least 10 years after diagnosis. In 60% of these patients, the disease may not progress at all.