What is repair mechanism?
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell’s ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes.
Why do RNA viruses and retroviruses have such a high rate of mutation?
What is one reason that RNA viruses and retroviruses have such a high rate of mutation? because RNA is more fragile than DNA and because viral polymerases lack a proofreading mechanism. because RNA is more fragile than DNA and because viral polymerases lack a proofreading mechanism.
What are some of the possible consequences of mutation?
Harmful mutations may cause genetic disorders or cancer. A genetic disorder is a disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes. A human example is cystic fibrosis. A mutation in a single gene causes the body to produce thick, sticky mucus that clogs the lungs and blocks ducts in digestive organs.
Are somatic mutations passed onto offspring?
Mutations in somatic cells can affect the individual, but they are not passed on to offspring.
What is the difference between a germline and a somatic mutation?
Somatic mutations – occur in a single body cell and cannot be inherited (only tissues derived from mutated cell are affected) Germline mutations – occur in gametes and can be passed onto offspring (every cell in the entire organism will be affected)
Which disease is the result of a somatic mutation?
Somatic mutations can give rise to cancer (9), as well as noncancerous diseases. Noncancerous somatic mutations that occur during development may affect cell proliferation, as would be the case in cancer, or they may simply alter cellular function without causing a proliferative effect.
How does somatic mutation occur?
Acquired (or somatic) mutations occur at some time during a person’s life and are present only in certain cells, not in every cell in the body. These changes can be caused by environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation from the sun, or can occur if an error is made as DNA copies itself during cell division.
What is an example of a somatic mutation?
Somatic Mutations. Somatic mutations are mutations acquired by non-germline cells and cannot be inherited by the offspring of the parent organism of the mutated cell, with the exception of, for example, canine transmissible venereal tumor . In cancer cells, such mutations were found at high frequency.
Can somatic mutation be inherited?
An alteration in DNA that occurs after conception. Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children.
What is an example of germline mutation?
Other examples include mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which predispose to breast and ovarian cancer, or mutations in MLH1 which predispose to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.
How do you test for germline mutation?
Germline mutations can be identified by utilizing a saliva sample that contains buccal cells or a blood sample. Genetic testing in the tumor can be utilized to identify genetic changes in cancer cells that may be driving the growth of an individual’s cancer.
Can your DNA be altered?
DNA is a dynamic and adaptable molecule. As such, the nucleotide sequences found within it are subject to change as the result of a phenomenon called mutation. Sometimes, a mutation may even cause dramatic changes in the physiology of an affected organism.