What was the biological source of the bubonic plague?

What was the biological source of the bubonic plague?

Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system, usually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (the Oriental rat flea). Several flea species carried the bubonic plague, such as Pulex irritans (the human flea), Xenopsylla cheopis, and Ceratophyllus fasciatus.

When was the CCR5 mutation discovered?

CCR5 Mutation The mutation was first discovered in 1996 as a mutation that protects cells from being infected by HIV. Genetic analysis of the gene revealed that the mutation consists of a 32 basepair deletion from nucleotide 794 to 825[17].

Was the bubonic plague a virus?

Plague is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria, usually found in small mammals and their fleas. The disease is transmitted between animals via their fleas and, as it is a zoonotic bacterium, it can also transmit from animals to humans.

What was one of the primary reasons for the spread of the bubonic plague?

The Black Death is believed to have been the result of plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The disease was likely transmitted from rodents to humans by the bite of infected fleas.

Who has CCR5 mutation?

The mutation is found principally in Europe and western Asia, with higher frequencies generally in the north. Homozygous carriers of the Delta32 mutation are resistant to HIV-1 infection because the mutation prevents functional expression of the CCR5 chemokine receptor normally used by HIV-1 to enter CD4+ T cells.

Does bubonic plague still exist?

Bubonic plague may seem like a part of the past, but it still exists today in the world and in rural areas of the U.S. The best way to prevent getting plague is to avoid the fleas that live on rodents such as rats, mice and squirrels.

Was the bubonic plague a pandemic or epidemic?

Black Death, pandemic that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351, taking a proportionately greater toll of life than any other known epidemic or war up to that time.

Which people were most closely associated with the spread of the Black Death?

Which groups of people were most closely associated with the spread of the Black Death? What was an immediate result of the Black Death? 1340s—Mongols, merchants, and other travelers carried disease along trade routes west of China. 1346—The plague reached the Black Sea ports of Caffa and Tana.

Is CCR5 good or bad?

And now a new study suggests that CCR5-Δ32 is indeed harmful overall. The girls’ CCR5 genes were altered, according to data He presented, but they do not exactly match the 32-letter deletion; it’s unclear whether either of them is actually resistant to HIV.

Was bubonic plague a virus?

Is the Black plague curable today?

Unlike Europe’s disastrous bubonic plague epidemic, the plague is now curable in most cases. It can successfully be treated with antibiotics, and according to the CDC , treatment has lowered mortality rates to approximately 11 percent. The antibiotics work best if given within 24 hours of the first symptoms.

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